Research Work-in-progress (WIP) Papers © [for a general view on research, go to here]

RFID-Driven e-Business

RFID Adoption: Three Phases into the Integrative Era 

With the benefits of RFID technology articulated, we define three phases of business transformation as the intrusive RFID technology is being adopted by mainstream business processes with unprecedented industries' support. In this study, we propose three phases in the adoption of RFID technology: 1) Standalone adoption leading to products-in-motion, similar in nature as the onset of the Reactive Web Era, 2) Community adoption leading to chains-in-motion with interactivity among partners, similar in nature as the Interactive Web Era, and 3) Global adoption leading to business-in-motion such that e-business is conducted and visualized online. This is another evolutionary view of the far-reaching impacts of RFID technology in the Integrative Web Era.

The topic was presented at the ICBC 2007 conference, and now appeared in IJEB 2009.

On-demand Entitlement Services for Privacy and Security in RFID-based Information Sharing

The adoption of RFID technology will be extensive, both in scope globally and in participation in number of industries. RFID-based information flow will cut across partners in business chains (e.g., supply chains and logistics service chains) that extended beyond borders. The impact of the RFID technology on e-business will be felt by trading partners individually and collectively, raising new privacy and security concerns. The on-demand capability of trading partners to share RFID-based data and information without compromising individual privacy and security is crucial to the success of RFID adoption in business chains, achieving real-time visibility for partners as such information and physical flows are timely synchronized, even to the unique item level.

A two-part working paper is in preparation as of January 2009 - suggested technologies are prototyped to be illustrated in a supply chain. A preliminary version (second part) was presented at ICED 2008 in Hawaii.

The term 'visibility' was introduced in the discussion. After a successful design and implementation of RFID adoption in a full garment supply chain, the term visibility now gathers more 'meanings' (can be articulated in a general fashion). The title may take "Supply Chain Visibility Entitlement: A ReBAC Model" (September 2, 2011)



AOLA e-Learning

Technology Landscape for AOLA e-Learning in Mathematics Education

A mathematical computation is required to be carried out, numerically or graphically or both for a problem exercise in a textbook, a newly derived formula, or a statistical estimation in mathematical form. The sequence of mathematical manipulation usually is known, and computationally possible as long as the proper formulation is expressed symbolically for a computing engine to follow. The engine could be a graphics calculator or a network of workstations distributedly controlled. Conceptually sound yet design and implementation of such a process using computers may not be fully understood. This paper discusses the elements that are characteristical of mathematical computations, and how such computations can be carried out leveraging the Web as the open environment. We look at the landscape of current Internet technology in such facilitation and the degree in which such facilitation has reached; we suggest how this landscape should advance to meet the challenging of the users' community.

No new development here. Wonder if anyone out there would like to pick up this topic? Email to any2any at As of September 2, 2011, there is no taker!!! This topic becomes old and will be retired next year.

activityML: a Language for Mathematics Activities to be Dynamic and On-demand

Posting a mathematics activity from a printed medium on the Web can be done easily - scan and post. In this case, the Web is used as a delivery channel. The learners can now view the activity online anytime and most likely anywhere. We intend an activity to include examples and exercises, and even assessments. We also intend to deliver the activity to the learners online via the Web, and to allow the learners to continue to 'work' on the activity online - paper and pencils would only require if notes are necessary during the learning process. That is, such an activity delivered to the online learners must be real - that is, editable, manipulatable, activatable and manageable. To capture all these characteristics, and to ensure interoperability across all systems, a language called activityML, is developed, along with basic technology to enable such a language to come alive on the Web.

The environment for activityML deployment is currently being developed and a Beta version is now available at here Beta AOLA ePlatform. More later>>

Towards myAirport: How RFID Is Transforming the Hong Kong International Airport

The adoption of RFID technology by the HKIA is in itself a deed not viewed favorably by many. We are well aware of the dialectic views on RFID technology. However, it is the holistic benefits of the industry as a result of adopting RFID technology that may silence critics and convince doubtful bystanders. Particularly, we believe that the HKIA has taken a first bold step many people have shunned or voted down. However, this is a step that is perceived functionally to be at par with the existing bar code system. Hence, we will learn from the experiences – business, managerial, and technical, and now the opportunities ahead towards myAirport which is a personalized destination management, where each airport adapts to customers’ needs, providing them with an integrative destination chain likened to a supply chain that knows exactly what end-customers want. Each airport is myAirport, and here, customers are treated appropriately, and their bags are handled accordingly, just as each supply chain partner deals with customer orders as their personal order, ensuring coordination with the upstream partner and cooperation with the downstream partner.

An extended abstract (3 pages) was complete in early 2007 but no taker; we are still trying as the HKIA has moved into the 2nd generation of RFID tags and integration with the luggage tape (that has been part of the aviation industry since when?) - fly out from Hong Kong and you will know. This research thread will not be continued but merged into RFID Adoption in general as an example (September 2, 2011).

Will Businesses Flourish in the Integrative Web Era? 

The Integrative Web Era is here and we are living in it. Before this era, we propose that there are three preceding ones: the first delineates the Web from our earlier electronic world as the Pre-Web era, followed by the Reactive Web Era and the Interactive Web Era. Yet, as we stepped into the 21st century, it seems the forward motion of the Integrative Era is not as strong and well-defined as the two preceding ones. Can businesses survive through the Era and continues to reap benefits of conducting business online, or the Integrative era would just fade away and be replaced with a lesser entity - collaborative web era?

[January 26, 2009] At this time, we believe the integrative web era will remain and continue for another minimum of 5 years (well, at this time - September 2, 2011, it has been half gone...), if not longer. Conceptual work will occupy the research space in those years as we foresee a number of topics are of importance to further shape the era. These topics, as we will call them now, include decision dynamics, 3rd party e-services (a preliminary paper is in preparation and to be presented in a Wuhan China IEEE conference), knowledge fabrics, and dynamic partnership (a preliminary paper is in preparation). See the research section >>

Collaborative Logistics Planning in the Logistics e-Platform: A Framework

The word 'collaboration' has been used loosely in every aspects of doing business on the web. The implications are mostly correct as such that the web nurtures an environment where partnership can be ad hoc, and collaborations bring leverage and bargaining power to the parties engaged in bidding for businesses. If such collaborations are referred to e-Collaborations, then there are not much discussion in such a concept. In here, we use logistics services to highlight the different levels of collaborations, and proposed a framework for further study, allowing the design of web-based facilitations for e-Collaborations.

A paper on e-Collaboration is currently being prepared as of May 2008.

An e-DSP for Collaborative Decision Support in e-Business

In this research, we investigate the nature of decision support in this new emerging era where online e-business prevails. Decision support takes on a different identity in the new e-environment where needs and situations are dynamic. We call this e-DSP, a platform where decision support is enabled within this e-business operating environment. Traditional decision support systems at company level no longer harbour the same characteristics as e-DSP. We plan to scan the literature of developing trends of DSS, followed by an analytical comparison of these DSSs. We then develop the underpinning of the role of e-DSP. Characterization of e-DSP will follow, providing a framework for technology consideration. Based on recognized e-infrastructure of e-business and e-commerce, a recommended e-infrastructure for e-DSP is provided. A review of current and emerging Internet & Web technology provides a sense of readiness of how realistic of the deployment of e-DSP in the integrative era.

A conference presentation was made on the topic in a Singapore conference. An updated version will be submitted to IJEB as of September 2, 2011.

An Overview of SCOR: Its Role in RFID Adoption

In this research, we raise the question of how to measure the contribution of RFID adoption in a supply chain (or any business chain for that matter). In order to provide an answer, there are these issues we must address first: 1) how does a supply chain can be described uniformly that can be compared to others in the same industry, and to others in different industries? 2) how could one determine the hotspot for installing RFID check points to gain an upper hand in supply chain management? What defines an 'upper hand'? and 3) what contributions and in what sense? At this time, we will address the first issue, with the intention of the other two issues would be apparently obvious once a possible framework is developed.

Initial understanding of SCOR was organized in here. [January 26, 2009] SCOR version 9.0 was out (we were looking SCOR version 8.0). Academic papers using SCOR as a reference in supply chain research remain undeniably none if not counting the one or two articles. Some papers used SCOR more as a vocabulary to tell how the authors view the supply chains and in what particular level of details of certain study is conducted. We remain positive on SCOR and research is continuing... [September 2, 2011] SCOR version 10.0 is on the horizon. We will expand on this is getting more interesting when hotspots, visibility templates and IoTGoLive (first mention here) are added.